Useful Git Commands
by Tania Rascia
Upload all files in a local directory to a new Git repository
If you have a project on your computer and you just created an empty Git repository in GitHub, use these commands to upload everything to Git.
cd directory git init git remote add origin firstname.lastname@example.org:your-username/repo.git git add . git commit -am "Message" git push -u origin master
Download all files from Git repository to a local directory
The opposite of the above option - for example, if your repository exists in GitHub, and you're working on it in a different local computer. Run this command outside of where you want the new directory to appear (not within the directory you want it to appear).
git clone email@example.com:your-username/repo.git # using SSH git clone https://github.com/your-username/repo.git # using HTTPS
Remove one file from Git cache
Remove one cached file.
git rm -r —-cached file.txt
Override entire local directory
If you have some merge conflicts, or accidentally started to make a change to your local directory before pulling the changes from the master, here's how you can revert your local directory to what's on GitHub.
git fetch --all git reset --hard origin/master
Ignore a directory
If you've been tracking a directory and later decide to ignore the whole directory, simply adding it to
.gitignore isn't enough. First you must add the directory to .gitignore, then run this command:
git rm -r --cached directory
Then push the changes.
Add .gitignore to an existing repository
Similar to above, but if you've added a
.gitignore with a lot of changes.
git rm -r --cached . git add . git commit -m "Message"
Force a push or pull
When you really want your local repository to override the remote.
git push -f origin master git pull -f origin master
Merging changes from remote pull request with conflicts
Make a new branch with their changes.
git checkout -b their-branch master git pull their.git master
Play with the files and commit them.
git add files git commit -m “Message" git push origin master
Merge back into your branch.
git checkout master git merge --no-ff <their-branch) (:wq!) git push origin master
: in front to remove instead of update remotely.
git push origin :branch-name
-D for local.
git branch --delete branch-name
Replace master with contents of another branch
git checkout branch-name git merge -s ours master git checkout master git merge branch-name
Remove all local branches except master
git branch | grep -v "master" | xargs git branch -D
More than one branch may be added to the grep. To remove all local branches except "master" and "develop":
git branch | grep -v "master\|develop" | xargs git branch -D
### Allow empty commit
Fix the problem of git hooks claiming everything is "Up-to-date".
git push production master git commit --allow-empty -m 'push to execute post-receive' git push production master
### Merge new-feature branch into master
git checkout master git pull origin master git merge new-feature git push origin master
Switch to branch that exists on origin
git fetch --prune --all git checkout other-branch
Fetch branch from origin
git fetch origin git checkout --track origin/<remote_branch_name>
Accept all incoming changes
git pull -Xtheirs
Rebase from develop
git fetch --prune --all git rebase origin/develop git pull git push
Put your changes away and switch to another branch
git stash git checkout -b new-branch git stash pop
Accidentally committed to develop and want to move that commit to a branch
git branch new-branch git reset HEAD~1 git checkout <files>